Aceros Inoxidables

 
 

Aceros Inoxidables

Los aceros inoxidables tienen una alta resistencia a la corrosión, alta resistencia mecánica y ductilidad, con un alto contenido de cromo.

Se llaman inoxidables porque en presencia de oxígeno desarrollan una película delgada de óxido de cromo que protege al metal de la corrosión. Esta película protectora se reforma cada vez que se araña la superficie.

Para que se produzca la pasivación, el contenido mínimo de cromo en el acero debe ser del 12%.

Propiedades mecánicas a temperatura ambiente y aplicaciones típicas de aceros inoxidables recocidos

  Resistencia a la
tracción
Voltaje de
enervación
Porcentaje de
alargamiento

Características y aplicaciones típicas


ANSI

(MPa) (MPa) (%)  

303

550-620 240-260 50-53

Productos para maquinaria, columnas, válvulas, pernos, tuercas, casquillos; accesorios para aviones; remaches, tornillos, pasadores

304

565-620 240-290 55-60

Equipos para industrias químicas y alimentarias, válvulas criogénicas, canalones para lluvia.

316

550-590 210-290 55-60

Alta resistencia a la corrosión al deslizamiento viscoso. Equipos para la industria química e imprenta, equipos fotográficos, hervidores de agua y contenedores de alimentos.

410

480-520 240-310 25-35

Piezas de la máquina, vástagos de la bomba, pernos, cuchillas, rampas para carbón, equipos de pesca, componentes del motor, cañones de pistola.

416

480-520 275 20-30

Accesorios para aviones, pernos, tuercas, remaches, tornillos, insertos para extintores.

Los principales tipos de acero:

Aceros inoxidables ferríticos

Aceros inoxidables austeníticos

Aceros inoxidables martensíticos

Austeno-ferríticos o dúplex bifásicos de aceros inoxidables.

AISI 316

El (designación de Estados Unidos) 316 (18/8/3 acero) o X5CrNiMo17-12-2 (denominación europea) - Número DIN 1.4401 es una aleación de acero inoxidable austenítico que consta de un contenido de cromo entre 16% y 18 %, de níquel entre 11% y 14% y de molibdeno entre 2% y 3%.

Nace como una modificación de acero X5CrNi1810 para añadir 2,5% de molibdeno, útil para mejorar la resistencia al cloruro de corrosión electrolítica (picaduras), que para el 304 es muy pobre. Es un acero inoxidable estándar: su índice de acero inoxidable es, de hecho, generalmente entre 25 y 28. Es adecuado para su uso en la construcción al aire libre, y durante un período limitado en ambientes afectados por agua de mar y en algunos aplicaciones navales no pesadas.

Hay también otra versión 316L (designación ES X2CrNiMo17-12-2 número 1,4404), es decir, con menor contenido de carbono de 0,035% (el 316 admite hasta 0,080%) útil para evitar la precipitación de carburos de cromo y por lo tanto la corrosión.

La presencia en el análisis de molibdeno hace que la resistencia a la corrosión de la marca sea excelente en todos los entornos naturales: agua y ambientes rurales, urbanos e industriales, incluso en presencia de una concentración moderada de cloruros y ácidos. El 316 / 316L se utiliza en el sector de la alimentación y agroalimentario y en muchos ácidos ambientes químicos (ácido sulfúrico, ácido fosfórico, ácidos orgánicos) y clorado, en, sin embargo, las condiciones de temperatura y concentración por debajo de un cierto umbral, más allá del cual toman sobre los materiales más alto.

La resistencia a la corrosión intergranular es muy buena, incluso después de la soldadura. 

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